The “bottom-up” approach to world history focuses on the most basic elements of human existence. It identifies problems and explores them through individual and group behavior, relying on multiple disciplines, especially anthropology. The objective is to link basic levels of society to the higher scales of activity. The work of E.P. Thompson provides valuable context.
Culture and Knowledge
Peoples of the world are divided today into nations, which replaced the empires that dominated in earlier centuries. But that is not all. Diasporas took shape as millions of people migrated from their homelands, linking common cultures across geographical and political boundaries.
Claims for freedom by Black Lives Matter demonstrators and by MAGA supporters show that there can be clashing meanings of “freedom.” What factors are contributing to this tension? This essay explores the ways in which social and ethnic groups and society’s many institutions complicate the concept of freedom. It points to a basic lesson: Learning and compromises are necessary before we can agree on what it means to be free.
The United States has been an active member of UNESCO for just 10 of the last 40 years. If the U.S. rejoins, it would not just be re-upping its membership in a global organization, it would be rejoining the global community of science and culture.
Popular culture is undoubtedly an arena for debating social priorities. And with the rise of social media, these debates now happen at the global level—often through the exchange of music and other types of art. Sometimes, such debates evolve into deep ideological discussion and can spur worldwide movements for social justice.